The Paris Rothschilds jumped into the fray providing financing. He first appeared in the novel The Deep Blue Good-by and starred in 21 novels through to the series' final release, 's The Lonely Silver Rain. The study had been undertaken by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Before there were Lee Child and Carl Hiaasen , there was MacDonald — as prescient and verbally precise as anyone writing today can possibly hope to be. Rockefeller, Jay Gould , and J.
The first dividends were paid in The company encouraged British miners to come to work in Brazil, and employed slaves until they were emancipated in the late 19th century.
A fire caused the mine to collapse in , and it took seven years to bring it back into operation. In the s the superintendent was found to be engaged in fraud and had to be fired. A rock fall in caused the mine to collapse again, and the company went into temporary liquidation. The mine was reopened and again became profitable in the s.
Strikes reduced production and the infrastructure fell into disrepair. Systematic exploration of the area around the Raposos mines to the east of Morro Velho seems to have started shortly before By the main lodes that had been discovered were the Mina Grande and Espirito Santo lodes, both west of the das Velhas River , and the Morro das Bicas lode about 1 kilometre 0.
Mining at the Morro das Bicas was suspended in the early s but continued at the other mines, which were important producers. The company drove an exploration adit in the Bicalho mine in , and seems to have opened a lode before halting operations. There was no activity in , tons extracted in , after which operations stopped. The company bought the Fernan Paes estate to the west of Honorio Bicalho around and began working the Gaia and Gabirobas mines.
Some exploration was resuming in after the Morro Velho mine collapsed, but results were discouraging. The Faria mine, about 1 kilometre 0. The Saint John Company began to pump out and explore this mine in The company started to drive an adit known locally as the Gaia tunnel from the west side of the Rio das Velhas at Honorio Bicalho in , running in a west-southwest direction.
It was meant to unwater the old Gaia mine and provide access to deeper levels of that mine. In the adit was extended further to the west-southwest, and reached the foot of the Faria mine in There explorations were stopped in due to the low price of gold. Between and , when production was suspended, , tons of ore were milled. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Nova Lima, Minas Gerais. In , his family moved to Strongsville, Ohio and he attended Cleveland's Central High School, the first high school in Cleveland and the first free, public high school west of the Alleghenies. Then he took a ten-week business course at Folsom's Commercial College , where he studied bookkeeping. His contemporaries described him as reserved, earnest, religious, methodical, and discreet. He was an excellent debater and expressed himself precisely.
He also had a deep love of music and dreamed of it as a possible career. Much of Rockefeller's duties involved negotiating with barge canal owners, ship captains, and freight agents. In these negotiations, he learned that posted transportation rates that were believed to be fixed could be altered depending on conditions and timing of freight and through the use of rebates to preferred shippers. Rockefeller was also given the duties of collecting debts when Hewitt instructed him to do so.
Instead of using his father's method of presence to collect debts, Rockefeller relied on a persistent pestering approach. In , Rockefeller went into the produce commission business with a partner, Maurice B. He gave money to the Union cause, as did many rich Northerners who avoided combat. Rockefeller was an abolitionist who voted for President Abraham Lincoln and supported the then-new Republican Party. He felt at ease and righteous following Methodist preacher John Wesley 's dictum, "gain all you can, save all you can, and give all you can.
Most failed, but those who struck oil did not even need to be efficient. They would blow holes in the ground and gather up the oil as they could, often leading to creeks and rivers flowing with wasted oil in the place of water. A market existed for the refined oil in the form of kerosene.
Coal had previously been used to extract kerosene, but its tedious extraction process and high price prevented broad use. Even with the high costs of freight transportation and a government levy during the Civil War the government levied a tax of twenty cents a gallon on refined oil , profits on the refined product were large.
In this environment of wasteful boom, the partners switched from foodstuffs to oil, building an oil refinery in in " The Flats ", then Cleveland's burgeoning industrial area. The commercial oil business was then in its infancy. Whale oil had become too expensive for the masses, and a cheaper, general-purpose lighting fuel was needed. Tar was used for paving, naphtha shipped to gas plants.
Rockefeller said, "It was the day that determined my career. He borrowed heavily, reinvested profits, adapted rapidly to changing markets, and fielded observers to track the quickly expanding industry. In , William Rockefeller Jr. In , Henry M. By , with Rockefeller continuing practices of borrowing and reinvesting profits, controlling costs, and using refineries' waste, the company owned two Cleveland refineries and a marketing subsidiary in New York ; it was the largest oil refinery in the world.
By there was triple the kerosene refining capacity than needed to supply the market, and the capacity remained in excess for many years. Continuing to apply his work ethic and efficiency, Rockefeller quickly expanded the company to be the most profitable refiner in Ohio. Likewise, it became one of the largest shippers of oil and kerosene in the country. The railroads competed fiercely for traffic and, in an attempt to create a cartel to control freight rates, formed the South Improvement Company offering special deals to bulk customers like Standard Oil, outside the main oil centers.
Part of this scheme was the announcement of sharply increased freight charges. This touched off a firestorm of protest from independent oil well owners, including boycotts and vandalism, which led to the discovery of Standard Oil's part in the deal. Rogers , led the opposition to this plan, and railroads soon backed off. Pennsylvania revoked the cartel's charter, and non-preferential rates were restored for the time being.
Before , oil light was only for the wealthy, provided by expensive whale oil. During the next decade, kerosene became commonly available to the working and middle classes. Undeterred, though vilified for the first time by the press, Rockefeller continued with his self-reinforcing cycle of buying the least efficient competing refiners, improving the efficiency of his operations, pressing for discounts on oil shipments, undercutting his competition, making secret deals, raising investment pools, and buying rivals out.
In less than four months in , in what was later known as "The Cleveland Conquest" or "The Cleveland Massacre," Standard Oil absorbed 22 of its 26 Cleveland competitors. Pratt and Rogers became Rockefeller's partners. Rogers, in particular, became one of Rockefeller's key men in the formation of the Standard Oil Trust. For many of his competitors, Rockefeller had merely to show them his books so they could see what they were up against and then make them a decent offer.
If they refused his offer, he told them he would run them into bankruptcy and then cheaply buy up their assets at auction. However, he did not intend to eliminate competition entirely. In fact, his partner Pratt said of that accusation "Competitors we must have If we absorb them, it surely will bring up another. Instead of wanting to eliminate them, Rockefeller saw himself as the industry's savior, "an angel of mercy" absorbing the weak and making the industry as a whole stronger, more efficient, and more competitive.
It added its own pipelines, tank cars, and home delivery network. It kept oil prices low to stave off competitors, made its products affordable to the average household, and, to increase market penetration, sometimes sold below cost. It developed over oil-based products from tar to paint to petroleum jelly to chewing gum. He instinctively realized that orderliness would only proceed from centralized control of large aggregations of plant and capital, with the one aim of an orderly flow of products from the producer to the consumer.
That orderly, economic, efficient flow is what we now, many years later, call ' vertical integration ' I do not know whether Mr. Rockefeller ever used the word 'integration'. I only know he conceived the idea. In , Standard clashed with Thomas A. Scott , the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad , Standard's chief hauler. Rockefeller envisioned pipelines as an alternative transport system for oil and began a campaign to build and acquire them.
Standard countered, held back its shipments, and, with the help of other railroads, started a price war that dramatically reduced freight payments and caused labor unrest. Rockefeller prevailed and the railroad sold its oil interests to Standard.
In the aftermath of that battle, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania indicted Rockefeller in on charges of monopolizing the oil trade, starting an avalanche of similar court proceedings in other states and making a national issue of Standard Oil's business practices. He complained that he could not stay asleep most nights. It supplied kerosene by tank cars that brought the fuel to local markets, and tank wagons then delivered to retail customers, thus bypassing the existing network of wholesale jobbers.
Standard's most potent weapons against competitors were underselling, differential pricing, and secret transportation rebates. The firm was attacked by journalists and politicians throughout its existence, in part for these monopolistic methods, giving momentum to the antitrust movement. By , according to the New York World , Standard Oil was "the most cruel, impudent, pitiless, and grasping monopoly that ever fastened upon a country".
To critics Rockefeller replied, "In a business so large as ours We correct them as soon as they come to our knowledge. At that time, many legislatures had made it difficult to incorporate in one state and operate in another. As a result, Rockefeller and his associates owned dozens of separate corporations, each of which operated in just one state; the management of the whole enterprise was rather unwieldy.
In , Rockefeller's lawyers created an innovative form of corporation to centralize their holdings, giving birth to the Standard Oil Trust. Nine trustees, including Rockefeller, ran the 41 companies in the trust.
Standard Oil had gained an aura of invincibility, always prevailing against competitors, critics, and political enemies. It had become the richest, biggest, most feared business in the world, seemingly immune to the boom and bust of the business cycle, consistently making profits year after year. The company's vast American empire included 20, domestic wells, 4, miles of pipeline, 5, tank cars, and over , employees.
Rockefeller finally gave up his dream of controlling all the world's oil refining; he admitted later, "We realized that public sentiment would be against us if we actually refined all the oil. In the early s, Rockefeller created one of his most important innovations. Rather than try to influence the price of crude oil directly, Standard Oil had been exercising indirect control by altering oil storage charges to suit market conditions.
Rockefeller then ordered the issuance of certificates against oil stored in its pipelines. These certificates became traded by speculators, thus creating the first oil-futures market which effectively set spot market prices from then on. The National Petroleum Exchange opened in Manhattan in late to facilitate the trading of oil futures. The Paris Rothschilds jumped into the fray providing financing. Even more critical, the invention of the light bulb gradually began to erode the dominance of kerosene for illumination.
Standard Oil adapted by developing a European presence, expanding into natural gas production in the U. Standard Oil moved its headquarters to New York City at 26 Broadway, and Rockefeller became a central figure in the city's business community. He bought a residence in on 54th Street near the mansions of other magnates such as William Henry Vanderbilt.
Despite personal threats and constant pleas for charity, Rockefeller took the new elevated train to his downtown office daily.
Ohio was especially vigorous in applying its state anti-trust laws, and finally forced a separation of Standard Oil of Ohio from the rest of the company in , the first step in the dissolution of the trust. In the s, Rockefeller expanded into iron ore and ore transportation, forcing a collision with steel magnate Andrew Carnegie , and their competition became a major subject of the newspapers and cartoonists. The daily management of the trust was turned over to John Dustin Archbold and Rockefeller bought a new estate, Pocantico Hills , north of New York City, turning more time to leisure activities including the new sports of bicycling and golf.
Upon his ascent to the presidency, Theodore Roosevelt initiated dozens of suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act and coaxed reforms out of Congress. Steel , then controlled by J. Pierpont Morgan , having bought Andrew Carnegie's steel assets, offered to buy Standard's iron interests as well. Steel stock and gave Rockefeller and his son membership on the company's board of directors. One of the most effective attacks on Rockefeller and his firm was the publication of The History of the Standard Oil Company , by Ida Tarbell , a leading muckraker.
She documented the company's espionage, price wars, heavy-handed marketing tactics, and courtroom evasions. I was willing that they should combine and grow as big and wealthy as they could, but only by legitimate means.
But they had never played fair, and that ruined their greatness for me. Though he had long maintained a policy of active silence with the press, he decided to make himself more accessible and responded with conciliatory comments such as "capital and labor are both wild forces which require intelligent legislation to hold them in restriction. Critics found his writing to be sanitized and disingenuous and thought that statements such as "the underlying, essential element of success in business is to follow the established laws of high-class dealing" seemed to be at odds with his true business methods.
Rockefeller and his son continued to consolidate their oil interests as best they could until New Jersey, in , changed its incorporation laws to effectively allow a re-creation of the trust in the form of a single holding company. Rockefeller retained his nominal title as president until and he kept his stock. Pennzoil and Chevron have remained separate companies. In the aftermath, Rockefeller's control over the oil industry was somewhat reduced but over the next 10 years, the breakup also proved immensely profitable for him.
Rockefeller in to help finance the loan. Control was passed from the Iowa Group  to Gould and Rockefeller interests in with Gould in control and Rockefeller and Gates representing a minority interests. Osgood left the company in and devoted his efforts to operating competing coal and coke operations. Rockefeller's operative, Lamont Montgomery Bowers,  remained in the background. Few miners actually belonged to the union or participated in the strike call, but the majority honored it.
Strikebreakers called "scabs" were threatened and sometimes attacked. Both sides purchased substantial arms and ammunition. Striking miners were forced to abandon their homes in company towns and lived in tent cities erected by the union, such as the tent city at Ludlow, a railway stop north of Trinidad.
Under the protection of the National Guard, some miners returned to work and some strikebreakers, imported from the eastern coalfields, joined them as Guard troops protecting their movements. In February , a substantial portion of the troops were withdrawn, but a large contingent remained at Ludlow. On April 20, , a general fire-fight occurred between strikers and troops, which was antagonized by the troops and mine guards.
The camp was burned, resulting in 15 women and children, who hid in tents at the camp, being burned to death. This incident brought unwanted national attention to Colorado. The union was forced to discontinue strike benefits in February There was destitution in the coal fields.
With the help of funds from the Rockefeller Foundation , relief programs were organized by the Colorado Committee on Unemployment and Relief. A state agency created by Governor Carlson, offered work to unemployed miners building roads and doing other useful projects. The casualties suffered at Ludlow mobilized public opinion against the Rockefellers and the coal industry. Bowers was relieved of duty and Wellborn restored to control in , then industrial relations improved.
Rockefeller stated, "I would have taken no action. I would have deplored the necessity which compelled the officers of the company to resort to such measures to supplement the State forces to maintain law and order. In his 50s Rockefeller suffered from moderate depression and digestive troubles; during a stressful period in the s he developed alopecia , the loss of some or all body hair. His hair never grew back, but other health complaints subsided as he lightened his workload.
Rockefeller died of arteriosclerosis on May 23, , less than two months shy of his 98th birthday,  at " The Casements ", his home in Ormond Beach, Florida.
He was buried in Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland. Against long-circulating speculations that his family has French roots, genealogists proved the German origin of Rockefeller and traced them back to the early 17th century. Johann Peter Rockenfeller baptized September 27, in the Protestant church of Rengsdorf immigrated in from Altwied today a district of Neuwied , Rhineland-Palatinate with three children to North America and settled down in Germantown, Pennsylvania.
The name Rockenfeller from Rockenfeld refers to Rockenfeld in the district of Neuwied. They had four daughters and one son together. He said later, "Her judgment was always better than mine. Without her keen advice, I would be a poor man.
The Rockefeller wealth, distributed as it was through a system of foundations and trusts, continued to fund family philanthropic, commercial, and, eventually, political aspirations throughout the 20th century. Grandson Laurance Spelman Rockefeller became a conservationist. Rockefeller was born in Richford, New York , then part of the Burned-over district — a New York state area being the site of an evangelical revival known as the Second Great Awakening ; it drew masses to various Protestant churches—especially Baptist ones—urging believers to follow such ideals as hard work, prayer and good deeds to build "the Kingdom of God on Earth".
His mother was deeply religious and disciplined, and had a major influence on him in religious matters. During church service, his mother would urge him to contribute his few pennies to the congregation.
He came to associate the church with charity. A Baptist preacher once encouraged him to "make as much money as he could, and then give away as much as he could". Money making was considered by him a God-given gift. A devout Northern Baptist, Rockefeller would read the Bible daily, attend prayer meetings twice a week and even led his own Bible study with his wife. His philosophy of giving was founded upon biblical principles. He truly believed in the biblical principle found in Luke 6: A good measure, pressed down, shaken together and running over, will be poured into your lap.
For with the measure you use, it will be measured to you. Rockefeller would support Baptist missionary activity, fund universities, and heavily engage in religious activities at his Cleveland, Ohio church. While traveling the South , he would donate large sums of money to churches belonging to the Southern Baptist Convention , various Black churches , as well as other Christian denominations.
One time, he paid for a slave's freedom and donated to a Roman Catholic orphanage. As he grew rich, his donations became more generous, especially to his church in Cleveland; nevertheless, it was demolished in , and replaced with another building. At the height of Rockefeller's power as monopolist there began rumors that the family guarded an "embarrassing secret".
Bill, who traveled as a mountebank across the country, sometimes a glad-handing huckster or occasionally as " herbal doctor ", although he had no legitimate medical training, abandoned his family around , but remained legally married to Eliza up to her death.
Allen — , without issue. He died in and his tomb was paid from the property of his second wife. Rockefeller's charitable giving began with his first job as a clerk at age 16, when he gave six percent of his earnings to charity, as recorded in his personal ledger. By the time he was twenty, his charity exceeded ten percent of his income. Much of his giving was church-related. Rockefeller attended Baptist churches every Sunday; when traveling he would often attend services at African-American Baptist congregations, leaving a substantial donation.
He was advised primarily by Frederick Taylor Gates  after ,  and, after , also by his son. He was allegedly influenced [ dubious — discuss ] by a meeting in with Swami Vivekananda , who urged him to use more of his philanthropy to help poor and distressed people.
Rockefeller believed in the Efficiency Movement , arguing that: Rockefeller and his advisers invented the conditional grant, which required the recipient to "root the institution in the affections of as many people as possible who, as contributors, become personally concerned, and thereafter may be counted on to give to the institution their watchful interest and cooperation". The Spelman Family, Rockefeller's in-laws, along with John Rockefeller were ardent abolitionists before the Civil War and were dedicated to supporting the Underground Railroad.
The oldest existing building on Spelman's campus, Rockefeller Hall, is named after him. Rockefeller's General Education Board , founded in ,  was established to promote education at all levels everywhere in the country. On Gates' advice, Rockefeller became one of the first great benefactors of medical science. It changed its name to Rockefeller University in , after expanding its mission to include graduate education. His General Education Board made a dramatic impact by funding the recommendations of the Flexner Report of The study had been undertaken by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Rockefeller created the Rockefeller Foundation in  to continue and expand the scope of the work of the Sanitary Commission,  which was closed in In the s, the Rockefeller Foundation funded a hookworm eradication campaign through the International Health Division.
This campaign used a combination of politics and science, along with collaboration between healthcare workers and government officials to accomplish its goals. Rockefeller's fourth main philanthropy, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, was created in Rockefeller became well known in his later life for the practice of giving dimes to adults and nickels to children wherever he went.
He even gave dimes as a playful gesture to wealthy men, such as tire mogul Harvey Firestone.