Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images Wikipedia external links cleanup from August Wikipedia spam cleanup from August The consonant alternation in certain weak verbs which typically goes along with the Rückumlaut phenomenon think: Chess variants in chess Board games introduced in Fictional games Three-dimensional board games. Likewise, [f] and [v] merged in almost all Germanic languages except Gothic and German , eliminating this variety early on.
To describe an individual as "playing three-dimensional chess" implies a higher-order understanding and mastery of the system beyond the comprehension of their peers or ordinary observers. This format was later picked up by Maack in when developing Raumschach. According to David Pritchard , this format is:.
He contended that for chess to be more like modern warfare, attack should be possible not only from a two-dimensional plane but also from above aerial and below underwater. Other obvious differences from standard chess include two additional pawns per player, and a special piece two per player named unicorn.
The Raumschach 3D board can be thought of as a cube sliced into five equal spaces across each of its three major coordinal planes. The cubes usually represented by squares and often called cells alternate in color in all three dimensions.
The horizontal levels are denoted by capital letters A through E. Ranks and files of a level are denoted using algebraic notation. The game objective, as in standard chess, is checkmate. Rooks, bishops, and knights move as they do in chess in any given plane.
Probably the most familiar 3D chess variant to the general public is the game of Tri-Dimensional Chess or Tri-D Chess , which can be seen in many Star Trek TV episodes and movies, starting with the original series TOS and proceeding in updated forms throughout the subsequent movies and spinoff series. The original Star Trek prop was crafted using boards from 3D Checkers and 3D Tic-Tac-Toe sets available in stores at the time games also seen in TOS episodes and adding chess pieces from the futuristic-looking Classic chess set designed by Peter Ganine in Rules for the game were never invented within the series  — in fact, the boards are sometimes not even aligned consistently from one scene to the next within a single episode.
The Tri-D chessboard was further realized by its inclusion in the Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual by Franz Joseph , who created starting positions for the pieces and short, additional rules. The complete Standard Rules for the game were originally developed in by Andrew Bartmess with encouragement from Joseph and were subsequently expanded by him into a commercially available booklet.
A complete set of tournament rules for Tri-Dimensional Chess written by Jens Meder is available on his website. A repository of Tournament Rules games can be found on the website of Michael Klein. Details for building a travel-size board are included on Meder's website.
There is software for playing Tri-D Chess. Parmen is a Windows application written by Doug Keenan and available free on his website. As well as in Star Trek , multi-dimensional chess games are featured in various fictional works, usually in a futuristic or science fiction setting. The concept is parodied in Futurama as tridimensional Scrabble.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A rook moves through the six faces of a cube in any rank, file, or column. A bishop moves through the twelve edges of a cube. A knight makes a 0,1,2 leap the same effect as one step as a rook followed by one step as a bishop in the same outward direction enabling it to control 24 different cells from the board's center.
In East and North Germanic, this levelling was almost complete before the earliest records, though Gothic and Old Norse did have traces of grammatischer Wechsel.
In Old English, too, the levelling had already begun to the extent that in some verbs the preterite singular had taken the consonant of the preterite plural. The only surviving example in Modern English is was: This latter is parallelled by German sieden, sott, gesotten.
German also features d: One example of h: All other cases have been levelled. Apart from the English copula mentioned above, the only occurrences of s: Not all consonant apophony in Germanic verbs is caused by grammatischer Wechsel. The consonant alternation in certain weak verbs which typically goes along with the Rückumlaut phenomenon think: Likewise, the terminal devoicing which produces a fortis-lenis alternation in Dutch wrijven: This suffix always bore the accent, and the verb root never did, while in regular strong verbs the verb root was accented in the present tense.
This caused Verner alternation between the original verbs and the causative verbs derived from them. Examples are numerous in the older languages but are less frequent today, because some levelling has occurred, and in some cases, one verb or the other was lost.
Grammatischer Wechsel was originally applied to any pair of etymologically-related words that had different accent placement, including also Proto-Indo-European athematic nouns. The alternations in nouns were largely eliminated early on in Germanic, but a few cases exist of parallel forms being still preserved in different Germanic languages such as English glass and Icelandic gler , an example of the s-z alternation.
No attested language, old or modern, shows any alternation in noun paradigms, however. Edit Read in another language Grammatischer Wechsel.