In , the Modern Language Association of America estimated that California's Asian American population is estimated at 4. The named reference Language was invoked but never defined see the help page. California is the 3rd largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain.
Eine Lizenzierung ist möglich. Bitte nehmen Sie bei Fragen Kontakt auf. Dies dient der Vermeidung von Spam. Sanierungsrate bleibt zu niedrig. Kommentare 0 Bisher keine Kommentare! Wenn Sie das Wort nicht lesen können, bitte hier klicken. Diesen Datenschutzhinweis habe ich zur Kenntnis genommen: Der Speicherung können Sie jederzeit widersprechen. Eine Weitergabe der Daten an Dritte zu Werbezwecken erfolgt nicht. California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy.
Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a report by the Congressional Research Service , the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.
The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley , in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties , have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust. In , there were more than , millionaires in the state, more than any other state in the nation.
California GDP by sector in Had California been an independent country in its gross domestic product would have been ranked fifth in the world. California per capita personal income by county in With the passage of Proposition 30 in , California now levies a California has a state sales tax of 7.
Many of these taxes are temporary for a seven-year period as stipulated in Proposition 30 and afterwards will revert to a previous maximum marginal income tax bracket of All real property is taxable annually; the tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or new construction. Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy.
However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any United States state. As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power.
The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation. California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre , the latter having been shut down in Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.
California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways 'freeways' , limited-access roads 'expressways' , and highways. California is known for its car culture , giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion.
Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation , nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States.
The state has been a pioneer in road construction. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists.
The San Francisco—Oakland Bay Bridge often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge" , completed in , transports about , vehicles per day on two-decks. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.
California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States.
The Port of Oakland , fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton is the easternmost port on the west coast of the United States. The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with over 10, employees.
They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records.
Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists. The California Water Wars , a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies.
So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water. The state's capital is Sacramento. California is organized into three branches of government — the executive branch consisting of the Governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate ; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts.
The state also allows ballot propositions: Before the passage of California Proposition 14 , California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. After June 8, , when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States President and county central committee offices,  all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party.
The California executive branch consists of the Governor of California and seven other elected constitutional officers: They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.
Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms. California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law  as is the case with all other states except Louisiana but carries a few features from Spanish civil law , such as community property.
California's prison population grew from 25, in to over , in California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1, judges, while the federal system has only about At the apex is the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California , while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.
The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council , composed of the Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California , and one member from each house of the state legislature. California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California , they are the legal subdivisions of the state.
The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards.
Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors. Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities.
Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a council-manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial.
The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. The San Francisco Board of Supervisors also acts as the city council and the Mayor of San Francisco also serves as the county administrative officer. About 1, school districts , independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education.
There are about 3, special districts in California. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts , and provide one service.
The state of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives ,  the nation's largest congressional state delegation. Consequently California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with In , California became the first state to have a Senate delegation entirely composed of women.
In California, as of [update] , the U. Department of Defense had a total of , active duty servicemembers of which 88, were Sailors or Marines , 18, were Airmen , and 11, were Soldiers , with 61, Department of Defense civilian employees. Additionally, there were a total of 57, Reservists and Guardsman in California.
In , Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1, individuals enlisting in the military. In , California, had 2,, veterans of United States military service: California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard , the naval and state military reserve militia , and the California Cadet Corps.
California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter. As of the presidential election, California was the 2nd most democratic state behind Hawaii. Among the political idiosyncrasies and trendsetting, California was the second state to recall their state governor , the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by voters including Proposition 8 in Voters also passed Proposition 71 in to fund stem cell research, and Proposition 14 in to completely change the state's primary election process.
California has also experienced disputes over water rights ; and a tax revolt , culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in , limiting state property taxes. The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections.
From to , California had Republican governors. Since , California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Jerry Brown ; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger , tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.
The Democrats also now hold a majority in both houses of the state legislature. The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From to , California was a Republican stronghold, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in every election except for However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes since As the result of gerrymandering , the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive.
In , Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained 4 seats and held a 38—15 majority in the delegation.
In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area.
Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County had remained largely Republican until the and elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates.
In October , out of the 23,, people eligible to vote, 18,, people were registered to vote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the U. For other uses, see California disambiguation. State of the United States of America. The Seal of California.
California grizzly bear State animal  Marine: Etymology of California and Island of California. Map showing Alta California in when it was a sparsely populated Mexican province. Miners during the California Gold Rush. California is Admitted to the Union under the Compromise of Merchant ships fill San Francisco harbor; c. Depiction of the completion of the first transcontinental railway. The Last Spike by Thomas Hill.
A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park. Köppen climate types in California. Aerial view of the California Central Valley.
Big Sur coast, south of Monterey at Bixby Bridge. Snow on the Sierra Nevada in eastern California. Death Valley , in the Mojave Desert. Potato Harbor, named for its distinctive ovular and bumpy shape,  on Santa Cruz Island. The coastline along Laguna Beach in Southern California. Cylindropuntia bigelovii in the Joshua Tree National Park. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Fauna of California and California Floristic Province. List of California native plants. List of invertebrates of California. List of rivers of California. List of regions of California and List of places in California. List of cities and towns in California and List of largest California cities by population.
Largest cities or towns in California Source: California Racial Breakdown of Population Racial composition     White Religion in California  religion percent Protestantism. Sports in California and List of professional sports teams in California. List of colleges and universities in California.
California locations by per capita income. California state finances and —12 California budget crisis. Energy use in California. Local government in California. List of counties in California. List of school districts in California. United States Armed Forces in California.
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Nowhere in the country were the changes in Pentagon outlays more apparent than in Southern California. Southern California and the World. The Economy and People of a Global Region. Ein gutes Drittel empfindet die Haltung der Juristen aber weiterhin eher als widerstrebend. Manchem Rechtschef mag es nicht passen, dass der Einfluss der Einkäufer weit über das rein Finanzielle hinausgeht.
Letztlich sind dies gängige Werkzeuge eines Einkäufers, auf Unternehmensjuristen dürften sie jedoch ein wenig wie Kontrollwerkzeuge wirken. Die besonders erfahrenen und besonders erfolgreichen Rechtseinkäufer machen sich nun auf zu neuen Ufern. Bei ihnen liegt das Augenmerk auf der Technologie. Nachdem die menschliche Unterstützung in Gestalt von Kanzleien und alternativen Dienstleistern strukturiert ist, ist der Einsatz von Legal Tech der nächste logische Schritt.
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